In the 17th & 18th centuries, the family Philidor served as court musicians and composers to French royalty over several generations. Their original surname, Danican, became Philidor when Louis XIII so-dubbed his oboist Michel Danican, after an Italian virtuoso named “Filidori”. Michel was Grandad to a number of prominent musicians, among them two Philidors famous for rather divergent interests: Anne Danican Philidor (1681 – 1728), who started the celebrated concert series Concert Spirituel (he was also an accomplished composer); and Francois-Andre Danican Philidor (1726 – 1795)—the very late younger brother of Anne Danican—who was a celeb chess master, renoun for “the Philidor defence” (opening) and “the Philidor position” (endgame). Above is a picture of the chess master, Francois-Andre (Image search “Philidor”. Chessmanias.com. 27.3.16).
This post based on “Philidor”. en.wikipedia.org. 30.3.2016.